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The statement of the Asia-Pacific Association for Gynecologic Endoscopy and Minimally Invasive Therapy for LACC study
Chyi-Long Lee, Kuan- Gen Huang, Joo- Hyun Nam, Peter C Lim, Felix Wong Wu Shun, Keen Whye Lee, Hiroyuki Kanao, Yoichi Aoki, Nobuhiro Takeshima, Wachyu Hadisaputra, Zhiqing Liang, Wisit Supakarapongkul, Kung-Liahng Wang
July-September 2019, 8(3):91-93
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_75_19  PMID:31544017
  10,951 311 6
The role of hysteroscopy in evaluating postmenopausal asymptomatic women with thickened endometrium
Giuseppe Trojano, Gianluca Raffaello Damiani, Vita Caroli Casavola, Rossella Loiacono, Antonio Malvasi, Antonio Pellegrino, Valeria Siciliano, Ettore Cicinelli, Maria Giovanna Salerno, Lorella Battini
January-March 2018, 7(1):6-9
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_10_17  PMID:30254927
Backgrounds and Aims: This study aims to compare hysteroscopic and histological findings in asymptomatic postmenopausal patients with thickened endometrium. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study involving case records of 295 asymptomatic postmenopausal women with a thickened endometrium >5 mm diagnosed at transvaginal ultrasound (TVS). Patients (women) underwent hysteroscopy with biopsy between 2009 and 2015, and they were followed up at National Cancer Institute of Bari and at University Hospital of Pisa. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of hysteroscopy were evaluated. Results: Inclusion criteria were TVS, hysteroscopy, and endometrial biopsy. When the hysteroscopic findings were normal, a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 98.6%, PPV of 95.2%, and NPV of 100% were achieved. For polyps and myomas, we found 100%, 98.7%, 99.5%, and 100%, respectively. In case of endometrial hyperplasia, a sensitivity of 66.7%, a specificity of 100%, a PPV of 100%, and a NPV of 98.1% were achieved. For endometrial cancer hysteroscopy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 100%, 99.6%, 75%, and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: Hysteroscopy allows an accurate diagnosis in benign endometrial pathology and suspect of malignant endometrial pathology in postmenopausal women with thickened endometrium.
  7,641 605 16
Minimally invasive therapy for cancer: It is time to take actions for training system in minimally invasive therapy after lacc report
Chyi-Long Lee
January-March 2019, 8(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_132_18  PMID:30783581
  7,188 545 5
Epidemiologic factors associated with endometriosis in East Asia
Chih-Feng Yen, Mee-Ran Kim, Chyi-Long Lee
January-March 2019, 8(1):4-11
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_83_18  PMID:30783582
Aim: With a perplexing pathogenesis and an incidence rate of approximately 10% among women of reproductive age, endometriosis affects more women in Asia than in any other continent in the world. This paper reviews the available data on the epidemiology and risk factors associated with endometriosis in East Asia. Methods: Included studies were published between January 2000 and December 2016. Articles were required to include East Asian patients with a diagnosis of endometriosis and to study epidemiology, such as the prevalence and/or incidence, associated with inherited, environmental, and/or lifestyle factors. A total of 65 candidate articles were retrieved and 22 were included in the final review. Results: Only one study provided an estimate of prevalence (6.8%). Short menstrual cycle, family history of endometriosis, and some genetic polymorphisms are associated with the risk of developing endometriosis. Smoking, lower body mass index, and lower parity associated with increased risk of endometriosis were suggested as modifiable factors. Limitations of this study include the poor quality of data identified, and the language barriers behind the study retrieval. Conclusions: Data on the epidemiology of endometriosis in the East Asian populations are limited. The available data that examine potential genetic factors do not unveil whether such factors directly contribute to the increased risk of endometriosis. Further extensive studies on endometriosis in Asian women are required to improve the management of this disease.
  6,227 520 9
Laparoscopic salpingectomy for an isolated case of left fallopian tube torsion in a premenarcheal 13 years old
Annabelle Sabu Vadukkut, Abhishek Mangeshikar, Sonam Jadhav, Sushil Kumar
October-December 2020, 9(4):245-247
Isolated torsion of the fallopian tube without an ovarian abnormality is an uncommon clinical finding even rarer before menarche and postmenopause, with an incidence of approximately 1 in 1.5 million women. Left fallopian tube torsion is infrequent as compared to right. Here, we report a rare case of a prepubertal girl who presented with acute left abdominal pain. Ultrasound suggested normal ovaries, and a significant left hydrosalpinx and color-Doppler was done, which confirmed signs of left-sided fallopian tube torsion. On laparoscopy, her left fallopian tube was twisted around its axis five times with the signs of necrosis, a laparoscopic salpingectomy was performed. Laparoscopy is the gold standard for the diagnosis and management of this condition. A high index of suspicion is necessary to make an early diagnosis allowing conservative surgical management and hence fertility preservation.
  6,278 152 2
Efficacy of hormonal therapies for decreasing uterine volume in patients with adenomyosis
Takashi Matsushima, Shigeo Akira, Takehiko Fukami, Koichi Yoneyama, Toshiyuki Takeshita
July-September 2018, 7(3):119-123
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_35_18  PMID:30254953
Study objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of hormonal therapies for inhibiting an increase in uterine volume in patients with adenomyosis. Design: This was retrospective cohort study. Setting: This study was conducted at Nippon Medical School Musashikosugi Hospital. Patients: A total of 28 women diagnosed with adenomyosis using magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: After providing informed consent, patients were treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa group), a low-dose estrogen and progestin combination (LEP group), or dienogest (DNG group) for ≥16 weeks. Uterine volume was assessed using the formula for an ovoid; uterine volumes before and after 16 weeks of treatment were compared. A <5% increase in uterine volume at 16 weeks was considered to reflect inhibition of uterine volume increase and efficacy of the medication. We compared the efficacy rate among the groups. Results: In the GnRHa group, a significant reduction in uterine volume was noted, from 307.4 ± 230.1 to 177.9 ± 142.1 cm3 (P < 0.001). In the LEP and the DNG groups, there was no significant change (LEP: 226.7 ± 116.6 cm3 pre-treatment and 230.5 ± 128.6 cm3 post-treatment, P = 0.85; DNG: 232.6 ± 117.8 cm3 pre-treatment and 262.1 ± 136.8 cm3 post-treatment, P = 0.37). The number of responders (efficacy rate) in the GnRHa group, LEP group, and DNG group was 25/26 (96.2%), 7/15 (46.7%), and 6/11 (54.5%), respectively. The efficacy rate of GnRHa therapy was significantly higher than that of LEP or DNG therapy (P < 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively). Conclusion: We conclude that the efficacy of GnRHa in reducing uterine volume should be considered when prescribing hormone therapy for adenomyosis.
  5,125 570 16
The evaluation of laparoscopic surgery on pregnant patients with ovarian cysts and its effects on pregnancy over the past 5 Years
Koki Kurihara, Mari Minagawa, Masamune Masuda, Mari Fukuyama, Keiko Tanigaki, Aya Yamamoto, Seiko Kato, Hiroyuki Fujita, Miho Eto
January-March 2018, 7(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_12_17  PMID:30254926
Study Objective: Study Objective: In this research paper, we demonstrate how to increase the success rate of laparoscopic surgery on pregnant patients with an ovarian cyst using rectal probe, SAND balloon, and lowering the insufficient level. Design: The study design wasa retrospective study. Setting: The study was conducted at Japanese Red Cross Kyoto Daini Hospital, Kyoto, Japan. Patients: Pregnant patients with an ovarian cyst who underwent laparoscopic surgeries at our institution during the period from January 2011 to December 2016. Materials and Methods: We reviewed 14 cases of pregnant women with ovarian cysts that underwent laparoscopic surgery during the study period by observing and analyzing the patient's characteristics, hospitalization practices, surgical complications, operational procedures, and obstetric outcomes. Main Results: Three cases were emergency surgeries and 11 cases were elective surgeries. In the 14 cases, the gestational age at the time of the surgeries ranged from 6 to 20 weeks. In our studies, we found no systemic complications after the surgery and none of the cases reported any fetal malformation or any fetal growth restriction. Conclusion: In our review, laparoscopic surgery for ovarian cyst during pregnancy was very safe and successful, without any adverse effects on pregnancy outcome.
  4,898 643 3
Loop electrosurgical excision procedure versus cryotherapy in the treatment of cervical intraepithelialneoplasia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Pietro D Alessandro, Bruno Arduino, Maria Borgo, Gabriele Saccone, Roberta Venturella, Annalisa Di Cello, Fulvio Zullo
October-December 2018, 7(4):145-151
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_56_18  PMID:30306032
Aim: Invasive cervical cancer is proceeded by a phase of preinvasive disease that is slow to progress and can be detected, treated, and collectively referred to as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Several excisional and ablative treatments for CIN have been studied, with loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) and cryotherapy being the two most commonly utilized. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to compare the compare harms and benefits of LEEP versus cryotherapy in women with CIN. Methods: Electronic databases were searched from their inception until May 2018. We included all RCTs comparing cryotherapy versus LEEP in women with CIN. We included trials evaluating both HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women. The primary outcome was the persistence of the disease at 6-month follow-up. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model to produce summary treatment effects in terms of relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Four trials, including 1035 women with CIN, were identified as relevant and included in the meta-analysis. Women who received LEEP for CIN had a significantly lower persistence at 6-month follow-up biopsy (RR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76–0.99) and significantly lower recurrence at 12-month follow-up biopsy (RR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.84–0.99) compared to those who received cryotherapy. No between-group differences were found in the complications rate, but the analyses were not powered for these outcomes. Conclusions: In women with CIN, treatment with LEEP was associated with a significantly lower risk of persistence disease at 6 months and recurrence disease at 12 months compared to treatment with cryotherapy.
  4,712 596 17
Surgical and oncological outcome of total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy versus radical abdominal hysterectomy in early cervical cancer in Singapore
Timothy Yong Kuei Lim, Krystal Koh Miao Lin, Wai Loong Wong, Ieera Madan Aggarwal, Philip Kwai Lam Yam
April-June 2019, 8(2):53-58
Introduction: The Wertheim's radical abdominal hysterectomy (RAH) has been the traditional surgical approach for operable Stage IB cervical cancer in Singapore whereas total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy (TLRH) was introduced only in 2009. In this study, we aimed to compare the long-term surgical outcome between the two routes of surgery in our center. Methods: This is a prospective study performed in a single large tertiary institution in Singapore. Inclusion criteria included surgically fit patients with early cervical cancer and no radiological evidence of regional or distant metastases. Results: From November 2009 to December 2014, 51 TLRHs and 85 RAHs were performed. Median blood loss in the TLRH group was significantly lower than in the RAH group (300 vs. 500 mL; P = 0.002) as was median hospital stay (5 vs. 6 days; P = 0.001). Operative time was significantly higher in the TLRH group (262 vs. 228 min; P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in bladder recovery. Intraoperative complications were encountered in 2 (3.9%) TLRH patients and 1 (1.2%) RAH patient. Postoperative complications occurred in 3 (5.9%) TLRH patients and 8 (9.4%) RAH patients. With a median follow-up of 117 (range 1.6–314.6) weeks in the TLRH group and 143.3 (range 0.4–304.7) weeks in the RAH group, 9 (17.6%) TLRH patients and 7 (8.2%) RAH patients had recurrence. There was no significant difference in the overall 3-year survival between the TLRH group and the RAH group for tumor size ≤2 cm (100.0% vs. 97.0%; P = 0.37). However, there was a trend toward lower survival for the TLRH group for tumor size >2 cm (61.9% vs. 85.4%; P = 0.06). Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that with appropriate patient selection, TLRH can be a safe and effective procedure for the management of early cervical cancer in Singapore, especially in women with small tumors ≤2 cm but should be used with caution in women with larger tumors.
  4,848 435 19
Uterine arteriovenous malformation treated by hysteroscopic excision
Tae Hee Kim, Nam Kyeong Kim, Seul Ki Kim, Jung Ryeol Lee, Byung Chul Jee, Yong Beom Kim, Seok Hyun Kim
July-September 2019, 8(3):132-134
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_114_18  PMID:31544025
Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a vascular hamartoma of the myometrium that mostly results from uterine tissue damage. Herein, we report a case of uterine AVM managed successfully by hysteroscopy. The patient had an induced abortion and subsequent persistent vaginal spotting and irregular active vaginal bleeding. Ultrasonography showed a 3.5 cm × 2.9 cm heterogeneous lesion in the endometrial cavity with increased vascularity. Symptoms were monitored without uterine artery embolization to avoid complications that may affect a future pregnancy. However, 10 days later, she presented with active vaginal bleeding. Hysteroscopic endometrial mass excision was performed. Her postoperative hemoglobin level and vital signs were stable. Biopsy of the excised mass revealed AVM. Her postoperative vaginal bleeding decreased significantly, and outpatient ultrasonography 1 month later showed no abnormal findings. This case confirms the feasibility and safety of hysteroscopic management of uterine AVMs. The hysteroscopic technique should be prioritized for managing uterine AVMs.
  4,656 334 3
Hysteroscopic-guided removal of retained intrauterine device: Experience at an Academic Tertiary Hospital
Ma. Rosielyn D. Asto, Maria Antonia E. Habana
April-June 2018, 7(2):56-60
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_11_18  PMID:30254938
Background: Removal of an intrauterine device can be easily done when the string is visible during speculum exam. The task becomes challenging when the string is no longer visible. Methodology: The in-patient and out-patient medical records of all patients admitted for hysteroscopic-guided intrauterine device removal from January 2013 to December 2015 from a tertiary academic government hospital were retrieved and reviewed. Demographic data, intraoperative record, and post-operative course and outcome were obtained. Prior attempts on removal were also noted. Total operative time, type of IUD removed, operative findings and any complications encountered were recorded. The size and model of the hysteroscope were also noted. Results: Nineteen patients were included, twelve were of reproductive age and seven were already in their menopausal years. Majority were multigravida. Reasons for IUD removal for most patients were spotting, desire for pregnancy, and expired date of use. All patients had prior attempts of ultrasound guided IUD removal. Majority of patients had unremarkable post-operative course and no readmissions were noted. Conclusion: Hysteroscopic-guided removal of IUD is a superior option for management when ultrasound guided removal fails. Unnecessary major operation and complications were avoided. In the three – year experience, there has been no major complications and re-admissions related to the procedure. Hysteroscopic removal of IUD was shown to be an effective option after failed ultrasound-guided removal with low risk of complications.
  4,325 567 3
Current treatments for female pelvic floor dysfunctions
Mun- Kun Hong, Dah- Ching Ding
October-December 2019, 8(4):143-148
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_7_19  PMID:31741838
As global population aging, the issue of pelvic floor dysfunctions becomes increasingly. Millions of women were affected every year. The treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction has evolved in the past decade. This review aims to provide the current information on the treatment for female pelvic floor dysfunction, including pelvic organ prolapse (POP), urinary, fecal incontinence (FI), and myofascial pelvic pain among women. We used PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science to search for studies that were related to pelvic floor dysfunction regarding the POP, urinary, FI, and treatments. The development of laparoscopic surgery and synthetic and biological materials for pelvic floor reconstructive surgery were summarized. The surgical outcomes and complications of different pelvic floor reconstructive surgeries were compared. New devices for FI and the potential modified pelvic floor reconstructive surgery were also discussed here. Female pelvic medicine will continue to evolve for better treatment in the future. The pelvic floor reconstructive surgery tends to be minimally invasive approach with synthetic graft use.
  4,245 620 5
The changes of surgical treatment for symptomatic uterine myomas in the past 15 Years
Weihong Yang, Ning Luo, Lishan Ma, Hong Dai, Zhongping Cheng
January-March 2018, 7(1):10-15
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_11_17  PMID:30254928
Study Objective: The aim of this study is to elaborate the changes of the surgical approach of treatment for uterine myomas in Yangpu Hospital in the past 15 years. Design: This was retrospective cohort study. Setting: Yangpu Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Materials and Methods: A total of 4113 patients with symptomatic uterine myomas underwent surgical treatments. Interventions: Eight kinds of different surgeries were involved in the study, including abdominal or laparoscopic surgery, hysterectomy, or uterus-sparing myomectomy. Measurements: The study collected patients' clinical data and reviewed surgical access and approach, complications, and the results of following up. Results: A total of 1559 cases (37.9%) underwent uterus-sparing myomectomy, 3005 cases (73.1%) performed laparoscopic surgeries. The percentage of laparoscopic surgery was significantly higher than homochronous data of laparotomy after 2003 (P < 0.001). The per year total of uterus-reserved surgery was proved to be negatively correlated with patient's age (R2 = 0.930; P < 0.001). The rate of myomas recurrence was significantly lower in the combined myomectomy and uterine artery occlusion group (4%, 34/910) than in the single myomectomy group (10.5%, 44/420) (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Retaining uterus and minimally invasive surgery were the important trends of surgical treatment for symptomatic uterine myomas. Laparoscopic uterus-sparing myomectomy may be an alternative to hysterectomy to manage to appropriate patients with uterine myomas.
  4,287 477 5
Laparoscopy and computed tomography imaging in advanced ovarian tumors: A roadmap for prediction of optimal cytoreductive surgery
Ahmed Samy El-Agwany
April-June 2018, 7(2):66-69
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_1_17  PMID:30254940
Introduction: Comprehensive staging laparotomy and cytoreductive surgery followed by chemotherapy has been the standard of care in advanced ovarian cancer. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an alternative in inoperable advanced cases. To select patients amenable for successful cytoreduction, major determinants including CT imaging and laparoscopy could be of value. There is no general accepted model for selection and reproducibility of techniques are a major challenge due to different clinical practice and complexity of scoring systems. Some lesions as small size (<5 mm) peritoneal deposits and mesenteric affection are hard to see on CT so, complementary laparoscopy may play a role in the preoperative assessment. The aim of this study was evaluation of the role of laparoscopy in advanced ovarian tumors for prediction of optimal cytoreductive surgery in relation to CT and surgical peritoneal carcinomatosis index (PCI). Aim: Was to evaluate laparoscopic assessment in advanced ovarian tumors for prediction of optimal cytoreductive surgery in relation to CT and surgical peritoneal carcinomatosis index (PCI). Setting: Gyne-oncology specialized center, El-Shatby maternity university hospital, Alexandria Egypt. Methods: From January 2016 to December 2016, 15 patients were recruited from gyne-oncology specialized center, Alexandria, Egypt. Patients underwent a special design described later then laparoscopy using palmar point entry was done for assessing small lesions and the extent of affection in surface peritoneal, mesentery, serosa of the gut especially small intestine (terminal ileum affection, more or less than 50% affection) mainly with evaluating other sites as liver surface and diaphragm peritoneal surface affection after removal of ascites by aspiration. Findings were correlated with laparotomy and CT scan findings. Surgery was performed in the same setting which is better or with in two weeks. Results: There were two cases with upper abdominal surgeries (cholecystectomy and splenectomy) where no visualization of liver and stomach on laparoscopy but were free on CT scan and surgical evaluation. Douglas pouch was not assessed in two patients with large fixed bilateral ovarian masses on laparoscopy. Two cases with diaphragmatic affection on CT scan related to the posterior surface were not detected on laparoscopy. These findings were correlated with surgical findings as the gold standard. The pathology was ranging from low grade to high grade serous cyst adenocarcinoma. Conclusions: Laparoscopic evaluation is a useful adjunct with CT prior to performing ovarian cancer cytoreductive surgery for assessment of operability. Laparoscopy is better for evaluating extent of serosal affection in advanced tumors in cases with omental cakes on CT. A roadmap for prediction of operability in advanced ovarian cancer can be used by combing CT PCI and laparoscopic assessment.
  4,255 470 10
Endometriosis involving the sciatic nerve: A case report of isolated endometriosis of the sciatic nerve and review of the literature
Tal D Saar, Stefaan Pacquée, Dean Helmar Conrad, Mikhail Sarofim, Philippe De Rosnay, David Rosen, Greg Cario, Danny Chou
April-June 2018, 7(2):81-85
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_24_18  PMID:30254944
Endometriosis is a common gynecological condition which affects 5–10% of women of reproductive age and up to 50% of women with pelvic pain and infertility. The most commonly affected areas are the pelvic peritoneum, ovaries and rectovaginal septum. Isolated endometriosis of the sciatic nerve is very rare. Our patient suffered from worsening right hip and buttock pain with severe exacerbation during menstruation. Several different imaging modalities (ultrasound of her pelvis and right hip, as well as X-rays and computed tomography scans of her right hip and lumbosacral spine) failed to identify any pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging scans of her pelvis revealed a 3.5 cm endometriotic lesion over the pelvic segment of her right sciatic nerve. Following a multidisciplinary discussion, the patient underwent laparoscopic excision of endometriosis. The patient recovered well from her surgery. She successfully conceived with in vitro fertilization 3 years after her surgery, following a failed course of Clomid (Clomiphene citrate) for ovulatory dysfunction.
  4,121 575 10
A randomized controlled trial comparing laparoscopic lens defogging techniques through simulation model
Vijay Palvia, Aaron J Herrera Gonzalez, Richard S Vigh, James N Anasti
October-December 2018, 7(4):156-160
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_39_18  PMID:30306034
Context: Current literature demonstrates a lack of comparative studies regarding effective techniques for reducing laparoscopic lens fogging. Aim: Our primary objective is to determine the efficacy of various laparoscopic defogging techniques (LDT) through a randomized controlled trial that employs a novel simulation model of the abdominopelvic cavity. Settings and Design: This study was conducted at academic community hospital. This study design was a randomized controlled trial through simulation. Subjects and Methods: A chamber was constructed that simulated the abdominopelvic cavity. We used 5 and 10 mm 0° laparoscopes. A 10 cm visual analog scale was developed to assign visual clarity (VC) scores. The 10 cm mark indicated perfect VC. We employed the following LDTs: (1) glove warming (GLOVE), (2) surfactant solution (Fog Reduction and Elimination Device [FRED]), (3) chlorhexidine solution (SOAP), (4) warm saline (SALINE), and (5) control. Three observers were blinded to the LDT used. Primary outcomes included VC scores at designated time intervals (5, 30, and 60 s) for each LDT. A minimum of 10 observations per time interval were required to achieve adequate power based on a 2.5 cm difference in VC scores. Results: For the 10 mm laparoscope, FRED, SOAP, and SALINE had a VC score at 60 s (VC60) higher than control (4.8 ± 2.2, 7.8 ± 0.8, 7.9 ± 0.7 vs. 2.4 ± 0.72, P < 0.05). Both SOAP and SALINE VC60 scores were higher than FRED (7.8 ± 0.8, 7.9 ± 0.7 vs. 4.8 ± 2.2, P < 0.05). No differences were noted in VC60 scores between control and GLOVE (2.4 ± 0.72 vs. 3.1 ± 2.2, P > 0.05) and between SOAP and SALINE (7.8 ± 0.8 vs. 7.9 ± 0.7, P > 0.05). Similar results were noted with the 5 mm laparoscope. Conclusions: Common LDTs such as SALINE and SOAP were more effective than FRED, while GLOVE was no different than control. These results demonstrate that the use of effective LDTs can potentially translate into improved patient care and operative outcomes during surgery.
  4,295 395 3
Intraoperative and postoperative clinical evaluation of the hysteroscopic morcellator system for endometrial polypectomy: A prospective, randomized, single-blind, parallel group comparison study
Akira Tsuchiya, Yasunori Komatsu, Reiko Matsuyama, Hiroko Tsuchiya, Yuri Takemura, Osamu Nishii
January-March 2018, 7(1):16-21
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_6_17  PMID:30254929
Objective: To evaluate the TRUCLEAR™ system (Smith and Nephew Inc., London, UK), a hysteroscopic system that morcellates and aspirates masses, in terms of the operating time, surgeon's convenience, and effect on patients compared with conventional electrosurgical resection. Methods: Patients undergoing hysteroscopic resection of endometrial polyps were randomly allocated to undergo hysteroscopic morcellation or electrosurgical resection (UMIN-CTR identifier: UMIN000019649). The primary outcome was the operating time. Secondary outcomes were the removal success, fluid deficit, convenience with the technique, insertion time, number of insertions during the operation, visibility of the operative field, recurrence of the patient's chief complaint, and adverse events. Results: Sixty-seven women were randomly allocated to the morcellation arm (n = 34) or electrosurgical resection arm (n = 33) from November 2015 to November 2016. The polyps were completely removed, and no adverse events were observed in all 67 patients. The average operating time (8.3 min vs. 12.0 min, P = 0.014), insertion time (5.0 min vs. 9.0 min, P < 0.001), and number of insertions (1.0 vs. 8.2, P < 0.001) were significantly lower in the morcellation arm than in the electrosurgical resection arm. Surgeons' subjective evaluation measured on a 10-cm visual analog scale was higher in the morcellation arm than in the electrosurgical resection arm in terms of easiness of removal (8.4 vs. 6.5, P < 0.001) and visibility of the operative field (7.8 vs. 6.4, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Surgeons gave the hysteroscopic morcellator system a better evaluation compared than electrosurgical resection, and the system shortened the operating time.
  4,101 509 10
The Use of ulipristal acetate (Esmya) prior to laparoscopic myomectomy: Help or hindrance?
Rebecca Mallick, Sam Oxley, Funlayo Odejinmi
April-June 2019, 8(2):62-66
Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the operative effects, both positive and negative, of pretreatment with ulipristal acetate (UPA) on laparoscopic myomectomy. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from patients who underwent a laparoscopic myomectomy over a 2-year period. Results: A total of 62 patients were included, of which 10 received a 3-month preoperative course of UPA, and 52 patients received no pretreatment. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (no pretreatment vs. UPA pretreatment) with regard to blood loss (214.4 [±214.96] vs. 160 [±51.64], P = 0.432), operating time (111.64 [±41.8] vs. 117.5 [±50.4], P = 0.694), and duration of inpatient stay (1.27 [±0.56] vs. 1.11 [±0.33], P = 0.419). There were no complications in either group. In 100% of cases with UPA pretreatment, a distortion of the fibroid capsule with a more technically challenging dissection was noted, compared to 0% in the no pretreatment group. This anatomical distortion may result in more cases of incomplete resection and a potentially higher risk of recurrence. Conclusion: We conclude that UPA confers no operative benefits and should be used with caution in the presurgical treatment of fibroids. The use of UPA may indeed result in a more technically difficult myomectomy with distorted cleavage planes and carry a potential risk of incomplete resection.
  4,101 485 6
Management of cesarean scar pregnancy among vietnamese women
Tuan Minh Vo, Thong Van, Long Nguyen, Quynh Tran
January-March 2019, 8(1):12-18
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_8_18  PMID:30783583
Objective: To demonstrate the efficacy of management for cesarean scar ectopic pregnancies up to 8 weeks' gestation using ultrasound-guided Foley balloon catheter placement combined with dilation and curettage (D and C) at TuDu Hospital. Subjects and Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted from March 2015 to March 2016. Patients with imaging-confirmed cesarean ectopic pregnancies were admitted to an inpatient unit at Tu Du Hospital. A Foley balloon catheter was placed inside the uterus under ultrasound guidance and was left in place for 24 h. Afterward, the patient underwent ultrasound-guided D and C. Follow-up to confirm success included serial blood draws to measure beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) levels until a value of 0, and routine ultrasounds to confirm absence of a gestational sac and no evidence of vascularity at the site of the cesarean section scar. Results: A total of 311 patients were enrolled over 3 months. Overall, 90.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 86.8%–93.9%) patients were successfully treated with this regimen. Several factors that were significantly associated with successful management included gestational age <6 weeks (odds ratio [OR] 3.1, 95% CI: 1.03%–8.76%), β-hCG level <11,000 mUI/mL before discharge from the hospital (OR 6.5, 95% CI: 1.42%–30.6%), gestational sac volume 2 weeks after treatment measuring <5 cm3 (OR 9.1, 95% CI: 1.96%–50.1%). Conclusions: This is an easily applicable method with a short follow-up period and reduction in treatment costs compared to standard treatment with methotrexate injection.
  4,127 452 5
Intrauterine contraceptive device perforating the cecum, a pregnancy complication?
Luay Ibrahim Abu Atileh, Mohammad Anas Mourad, Dania Haj-Yasin, Laith Shlash, Laith Zaid Kaylani, Nardin Fadila
April-June 2019, 8(2):83-85
Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is a widely used method of contraception worldwide. Displacement of the IUCD extrauterine, by perforating the uterus and migration, is a serious complication following its insertion. We reported an extremely rare case of a 24-year-old female patient found to have a copper T 380A IUCD displaced from its normal site to be embedded into the cecum, suggested to have occurred during pregnancy, and being successfully removed laparoscopically.
  4,267 289 1
Utility of laparoscopic uterine myomectomy as a treatment for infertility with no obvious cause except for uterine fibroids
Satomi Kameda, Masafumi Toyoshima, Kohei Tanaka, Osamu Fujii, Shu-Ichi Iida, Nobuo Yaegashi, Takashi Murakami, Kazuhiko Hoshi
October-December 2018, 7(4):152-155
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_2_18  PMID:30306033
Objectives: Uterine fibroids are capable of causing infertility, but there are no definite criteria for which laparoscopic uterine myomectomy (LM) is known to be beneficial. To investigate the usefulness of LM, we examined pregnancy rates in patients with infertility with no obvious cause except for the presence of uterine fibroids. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records at Suzuki Memorial Hospital between June 2010 and August 2014. We found 60 eligible patients (LM group, 46; non-LM group, 14). The criteria for performing LM were a maximal fibroid diameter of 40 mm or more or the presence of >4 fibroids. Results: The duration of infertility before the first visit was significantly longer in the LM group; although there was no significant difference in the mean patient age and body mass index. Pregnancy was achieved in 45.7% of patients (21/46) in the LM group and 28.6% (4/14) in the non-LM group. There were no pregnancies in patients with >10 fibroids. The postoperative pregnancy rate in the LM group was comparable to previously reported pregnancy rates. Conclusions: Our criteria for performing LM in patients with no obvious cause for infertility except for uterine fibroids seem appropriate, especially when the fibroids are large and the number of fibroids is between 4 and 9. However, our results suggest that the effectiveness of LM is low in patients with 10 or more uterine fibroids.
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Laparoscopic removal of a 40-cm paratubal cyst in a morbidly obese patient
Luay Ibrahim Abu Atileh, Duaa Dahbour, Hasan Hammo, Mai Abdullattif
January-March 2020, 9(1):39-41
Paratubal cysts (PTCs) are remnants of the paramesonephric or the mesonephric ducts that are present during embryogenesis. They are mostly benign; however, malignancy has been described. The incidence of PTCs is estimated to be 5%–20% of all adnexal masses. They can present in any age group but most commonly the third or fourth decades. Huge PTCs exceeding 10–15 cm in diameter are considered rare and challenging, as only a few cases have been reported that describe complete laparoscopic excision. A simple asymptomatic PTC can be managed expectantly; however, surgery is mandatory if the cyst is huge, complicated, or causes severe symptoms. In this article, we describe a laparoscopic removal of a 40-cm PTC in a 32-year- old woman, as the largest PTC in literature that was removed by laparoscopy.
  4,300 228 1
Outcome and management of uterine leiomyosarcoma treated following surgery for presumed benign disease: Review of literature
Tanitra Tantitamit, Kuan-Gen Huang, Manatsawee Manopunya, Chih-Feng Yen
April-June 2018, 7(2):47-55
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_10_18  PMID:30254937
Uterine leiomyosarcoma (uLMS) is a rare and aggressive cancer, usually diagnosed incidentally at the time of myomectomy or hysterectomy. There have been concerns for several years about the fact that the inadvertent disruption of occult uLMS may have a negative impact on patient outcome. This study reviews the outcome and management of patients with a diagnosis of uLMS after surgery for presumed benign disease. We conducted a literature search in which 47 published English-language articles were obtained for evaluation. A total of 23 studies with outcomes data were included. It is evidenced that patients who underwent surgery with tumor disruption resulted in poorer outcomes compared with en bloc tumor, especially by power morcellation. The power morcellation was associated with an increased risk of recurrence, shorten time to recurrence, and upstage after re-exploration. Early re-exploration and surgical staging are appreciated for better prognosis and may alter postoperative treatment. We also updated on the incidence and preoperative evaluation to assess the risk of patient and give an effective counseling.
  4,032 478 5
The feasibility of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery in gynecology practice: Single-surgeon experience
Cihan Kaya, Ismail Alay, Sukru Yildiz, Huseyin Cengiz, Xalide Afandi, Levent Yasar
April-June 2020, 9(2):69-73
Objectives: Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has been performed in gynecology practice for the surgical treatment of ovarian cysts, uterine fibroids, ectopic pregnancies, adnexal masses, and pelvic organ prolapse. The aim of this study is to evaluate the intraoperative and postoperative outcomes of patients who underwent NOTES for gynecological diseases. Materials and Methods: This study was a retrospective clinical study. The data of 50 patients who had been treated via NOTES procedure for benign gynecological indications such as ectopic pregnancy, adnexal mass, uterine fibroid, and treatment-resistant heavy menstrual bleeding during the time period between January 2016 and 2019 were included. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon (C.K.) using a self-constructed glove port, and a sealing device in addition to conventional laparoscopic (CL) equipment. Descriptive analysis of the patients' data was performed. Results: The initial two of the adnexectomy procedures were performed via hybrid NOTES technic and four of them were performed via total vaginal NOTES technic. The remaining procedures, namely hysterectomies, adnexectomies, salpingectomies, and myomectomy were performed via vaginally assisted NOTES (VaNOTES) technic. The mean operation time for the hysterectomy ± bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) and salpingo-oophorectomy patients was 85.25 min and 53.15 min, respectively. For those patients who underwent VaNOTES procedure, the median postoperative visual analog scale pain score at the 6th h was six and at the 24th h was two. The mean length of the hospital stay was 2.07 days in the hysterectomy ± BSO patients and 1.63 days in the salpingo-oophorectomy patients. Conclusion: The NOTES procedure is a feasible technic in regards to the duration of surgery, postoperative pain scores, and cosmetic outcomes.
  4,201 301 3
Size, type, and location of myoma as predictors for successful laparoscopic myomectomy: A Tertiary Government Hospital experience
Mikaela Erlinda G. Martinez, Madonna Victoria C. Domingo
April-June 2018, 7(2):61-65
DOI:10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_12_18  PMID:30254939
Background: Laparoscopic myomectomy (LM) is a preferred alternative to abdominal myomectomy due to shorter hospitalization, faster recovery, and decreased intraoperative adhesions. The criteria, however, which constitute proper selection of patients for LM, are still a matter of debate. Since conversion to either laparoscopic-assisted myomectomy (LAM) or laparotomy (EL) entails longer time and increased costs compared to performing an open procedure from the outset, this research aims to evaluate size, location, and type of myoma as predictors for LM. Methodology: Inpatient medical records of all women who underwent LM from January 2014 to August 2016 were retrieved and reviewed. Demographic data, intraoperative records, and postoperative course were obtained. The association of size, type, and location of myomas to the procedure performed was analyzed. Results: There was no significant association between the size of the myoma or its location to the procedure performed. However, intramural and subserous myomas were associated with successful LM, while submucous myomas were associated with conversion to either LAM or EL (P = 0.010). Conclusion: LM is a difficult procedure that challenges even the most skilled laparoscopic surgeon. Proper patient selection lessens complications and decreases the risk of conversion. In this study, type of myoma may be a good predictor for successful LM; however, this conclusion may be limited by the small sample size. A large-scale multicentric prospective study is necessary to validate the role of the proposed predictors to prevent unplanned conversion to an open procedure and reduce cost and increase safety of LM.
  4,021 478 5